SQLProvider


SQL Provider Basics

The SQL provider is an erasing type provider which enables you to instantly connect to a variety of database sources in the IDE and explore them in a type-safe manner, without the inconvenience of a code-generation step.

SQL Provider supports the following database types:

After you have installed the nuget package or built the type provider assembly from source, you should reference the assembly either as a project reference or by using an F# interactive script file.

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// when using the SQLProvider in a script file (.fsx), the file needs to be referenced
// using F#'s `#r` command:
#r "../../packages/SQLProvider.1.0.1/lib/net40/FSharp.Data.SqlProvider.dll"
// whether referencing in a script, or added to project as an assembly
// reference, the library needs to be opened
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open FSharp.Data.Sql

To use the type provider you must first create a type alias.

In this declaration you are able to pass various pieces of information known as static parameters to initialize properties such as the connection string and database vendor type that you are connecting to.

In the following examples a SQLite database will be used. You can read in more detail about the available static parameters in other areas of the documentation.

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type sql = SqlDataProvider<Common.DatabaseProviderTypes.SQLITE,
                           connectionString,
                           ResolutionPath = resolutionPath,
                           CaseSensitivityChange = Common.CaseSensitivityChange.ORIGINAL>

Now we have a type sql that represents the SQLite database provided in the connectionString parameter. In order to start exploring the database's schema and reading its data, you create a DataContext value.

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let ctx = sql.GetDataContext()

If you want to use non-literal connectionString at runtime (e.g. crypted production passwords), you can pass your runtime connectionString parameter to GetDataContext:

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let ctx2 = sql.GetDataContext connectionString2

When you press . on ctx, intellisense will display a list of properties representing the available tables and views within the database.

In the simplest case, you can treat these properties as sequences that can be enumerated.

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let customers = ctx.Main.Customers |> Seq.toArray

This is the equivalent of executing a query that selects all rows and columns from the [main].[customers] table.

Notice the resulting type is an array of [Main].[Customers]Entity. These entities will contain properties relating to each column name from the table.

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let firstCustomer = customers.[0]
let name = firstCustomer.ContactName

Each property is correctly typed depending on the database column definitions. In this example, firstCustomer.ContactName is a string.

Most of the databases support some kind of comments/descriptions/remarks to tables and columns for documentation purposes. These descriptions are fetched to tooltips for the tables and columns.

Constraints and Relationships

A typical relational database will have many connected tables and views through foreign key constraints. The SQL provider is able to show you these constraints on entities. They appear as properties named the same as the constraint in the database.

You can gain access to these child or parent entities by simply enumerating the property in question.

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let orders = firstCustomer.``main.Orders by CustomerID`` |> Seq.toArray

orders now contains all the orders belonging to firstCustomer. You will see the orders type is an array of [Main].[Orders]Entity indicating the resulting entities are from the [main].[Orders] table in the database. If you hover over FK_Orders_0_0 intellisense will display information about the constraint in question including the names of the tables involved and the key names.

Behind the scenes the SQL provider has automatically constructed and executed a relevant query using the entity's primary key.

Basic Querying

The SQL provider supports LINQ queries using F#'s query expression syntax.

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let customersQuery = 
    query { 
        for customer in ctx.Main.Customers do
            select customer
    }
    |> Seq.toArray

Support also async queries

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let customersQueryAsync = 
    query { 
        for customer in ctx.Main.Customers do
            select customer
    }
    |> Seq.executeQueryAsync |> Async.StartAsTask

The above example is identical to the query that was executed when ctx.[main].[Customers] |> Seq.toArray was evaluated.

You can extend this basic query include to filter criteria by introducing one or more where clauses

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let filteredQuery = 
    query { 
        for customer in ctx.Main.Customers do
            where (customer.ContactName = "John Smith")
            select customer
    }
    |> Seq.toArray

let multipleFilteredQuery = 
    query { 
        for customer in ctx.Main.Customers do
            where ((customer.ContactName = "John Smith" && customer.Country = "England") || customer.ContactName = "Joe Bloggs")
            select customer
    }
    |> Seq.toArray

The SQL provider will accept any level of nested complex conditional logic in the where clause.

To access related data, you can either enumerate directly over the constraint property of an entity, or you can perform an explicit join.

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let automaticJoinQuery = 
    query { 
        for customer in ctx.Main.Customers do
            for order in customer.``main.Orders by CustomerID`` do
                where (customer.ContactName = "John Smith")
                select (customer, order)
    }
    |> Seq.toArray

let explicitJoinQuery = 
    query { 
        for customer in ctx.Main.Customers do
            join order in ctx.Main.Orders on (customer.CustomerId = order.CustomerId)
            where (customer.ContactName = "John Smith")
            select (customer, order)
    }
    |> Seq.toArray

Both of these queries have identical results, the only difference is that one requires explicit knowledge of which tables join where and how, and the other doesn't. You might have noticed the select expression has now changed to (customer, order). As you may expect, this will return an array of tuples where the first item is a [Main].[Customers]Entity and the second a [Main].[Orders]Entity. Often you will not be interested in selecting entire entities from the database. Changing the select expression to use the entities' properties will cause the SQL provider to select only the columns you have asked for, which is an important optimization.

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let ordersQuery = 
    query { 
        for customer in ctx.Main.Customers do
            for order in customer.``main.Orders by CustomerID`` do
                where (customer.ContactName = "John Smith")
                select (customer.ContactName, order.OrderDate, order.ShipAddress)
    }
    |> Seq.toArray

The results of this query will return the name, order date and ship address only. By doing this you no longer have access to entity types. The SQL provider supports various other query keywords and features that you can read about elsewhere in this documentation.

Individuals

The SQL provider has the ability via intellisense to navigate the actual data held within a table or view. You can then bind that data as an entity to a value.

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let BERGS = ctx.Main.Customers.Individuals.BERGS

Every table and view has an Individuals property. When you press dot on this property, intellisense will display a list of the data in that table, using whatever the primary key is as the text for each one. In this case, the primary key for [main].[Customers] is a string, and I have selected one named BERGS. You will see the resulting type is [main].[Customers]Entity.

The primary key is not usually very useful for identifying data however, so in addition to this you will see a series of properties named "As X" where X is the name of a column in the table. When you press . on one of these properties, the data is re-projected to you using both the primary key and the text of the column you have selected.

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let christina = ctx.Main.Customers.Individuals.``As ContactName``.``BERGS, Christina Berglund``

DataContext

You should create and use one data context as long as it has the parameters you need. An example of when to use multiple data contexts is when you need to pass different connection strings to connect to different instances of the same database, e.g. to copy data between them.

The connection itself is not stored and reused with an instance of the data context. The data context creates a connection when you execute a query or when you call SubmitUpdates(). In terms of transactions, the data context object tracks (full) entities that were retrieved using it via queries or Individuals and manages their states. Upon calling SubmitUpdates(), all entities modified/created that belong to that data context are wrapped in a single transaction scope, and then a connection is created and thus enlisted into the transaction.

Database schema is cached lazily meanwhile you use it. Sometimes your schema may change meanwhile you develop your code, and you would like to refresh and invalidate the database schema cache without restarting your IDE. This can be done via method ClearDatabaseSchemaCache. under property Design Time Commands under database context while in on-line mode.

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type LiteralAttribute =
  inherit Attribute
  new : unit -> LiteralAttribute

--------------------
new : unit -> LiteralAttribute
val connectionString : string
val connectionString2 : string
val resolutionPath : string
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namespace FSharp

--------------------
namespace Microsoft.FSharp
Multiple items
namespace FSharp.Data

--------------------
namespace Microsoft.FSharp.Data
namespace FSharp.Data.Sql
type sql = obj
type SqlDataProvider


<summary>Typed representation of a database</summary>
                    <param name='ConnectionString'>The connection string for the SQL database</param>
                    <param name='ConnectionStringName'>The connection string name to select from a configuration file</param>
                    <param name='DatabaseVendor'> The target database vendor</param>
                    <param name='IndividualsAmount'>The amount of sample entities to project into the type system for each SQL entity type. Default 1000.</param>
                    <param name='UseOptionTypes'>If true, F# option types will be used in place of nullable database columns. If false, you will always receive the default value of the column's type even if it is null in the database.</param>
                    <param name='ResolutionPath'>The location to look for dynamically loaded assemblies containing database vendor specific connections and custom types.</param>
                    <param name='Owner'>Oracle: The owner of the schema for this provider to resolve. PostgreSQL: A list of schemas to resolve, separated by spaces, newlines, commas, or semicolons.</param>
                    <param name='CaseSensitivityChange'>Should we do ToUpper or ToLower when generating table names?</param>
                    <param name='TableNames'>Comma separated table names list to limit a number of tables in big instances. The names can have '%' sign to handle it as in the 'LIKE' query (Oracle and MSSQL Only)</param>
                    <param name='ContextSchemaPath'>The location of the context schema previously saved with SaveContextSchema. When not empty, will be used to populate the database schema instead of retrieving it from then database.</param>
                    <param name='OdbcQuote'>Odbc quote characters: Quote characters for the table and column names: `alias`, [alias]</param>
                    <param name='SQLiteLibrary'>Use System.Data.SQLite or Mono.Data.SQLite or select automatically (SQLite only)</param>
                    
namespace FSharp.Data.Sql.Common
type DatabaseProviderTypes =
  | MSSQLSERVER = 0
  | SQLITE = 1
  | POSTGRESQL = 2
  | MYSQL = 3
  | ORACLE = 4
  | MSACCESS = 5
  | ODBC = 6
  | FIREBIRD = 7
  | MSSQLSERVER_DYNAMIC = 8
Common.DatabaseProviderTypes.SQLITE: Common.DatabaseProviderTypes = 1
type CaseSensitivityChange =
  | ORIGINAL = 0
  | TOUPPER = 1
  | TOLOWER = 2
Common.CaseSensitivityChange.ORIGINAL: Common.CaseSensitivityChange = 0
val ctx : obj
val ctx2 : obj
val customers : obj []
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module Seq

from FSharp.Data.Sql

--------------------
module Seq

from Microsoft.FSharp.Collections
val toArray : source:seq<'T> -> 'T []
val firstCustomer : obj
val name : obj
val orders : obj []
val customersQuery : obj []
val query : Linq.QueryBuilder
val customer : obj
custom operation: select ('Result)

Calls Linq.QueryBuilder.Select
val customersQueryAsync : System.Threading.Tasks.Task<seq<obj>>
val executeQueryAsync : (System.Linq.IQueryable<'a> -> Async<seq<'a>>)
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type Async =
  static member AsBeginEnd : computation:('Arg -> Async<'T>) -> ('Arg * AsyncCallback * obj -> IAsyncResult) * (IAsyncResult -> 'T) * (IAsyncResult -> unit)
  static member AwaitEvent : event:IEvent<'Del,'T> * ?cancelAction:(unit -> unit) -> Async<'T> (requires delegate and 'Del :> Delegate)
  static member AwaitIAsyncResult : iar:IAsyncResult * ?millisecondsTimeout:int -> Async<bool>
  static member AwaitTask : task:Task -> Async<unit>
  static member AwaitTask : task:Task<'T> -> Async<'T>
  static member AwaitWaitHandle : waitHandle:WaitHandle * ?millisecondsTimeout:int -> Async<bool>
  static member CancelDefaultToken : unit -> unit
  static member Catch : computation:Async<'T> -> Async<Choice<'T,exn>>
  static member Choice : computations:seq<Async<'T option>> -> Async<'T option>
  static member FromBeginEnd : beginAction:(AsyncCallback * obj -> IAsyncResult) * endAction:(IAsyncResult -> 'T) * ?cancelAction:(unit -> unit) -> Async<'T>
  ...

--------------------
type Async<'T> =
static member Async.StartAsTask : computation:Async<'T> * ?taskCreationOptions:System.Threading.Tasks.TaskCreationOptions * ?cancellationToken:System.Threading.CancellationToken -> System.Threading.Tasks.Task<'T>
val filteredQuery : obj []
custom operation: where (bool)

Calls Linq.QueryBuilder.Where
val multipleFilteredQuery : obj []
val automaticJoinQuery : (obj * obj) []
val order : obj
val explicitJoinQuery : (obj * obj) []
custom operation: join var in collection on (outerKey = innerKey). Note that parentheses are required after 'on'

Calls Linq.QueryBuilder.Join
val ordersQuery : (obj * obj * obj) []
val BERGS : obj
val christina : obj
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